arp - table of IP addresses to MAC address -- if you use -a switch, it will display your table.
Ipconfig - use to release/renew or to get IP addresses, subnet mask, default gateway. /all gives a lot of good info.
Pathping - Used to see if get good transmission to an IP address as well as tracing the path.
Ping - Used to see if get good transmission to an IP address.
Tracert - Trace route across network to a particular address.
Nslookup - get the IP address for a particular domain.
Nbtstat - displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
Netsh - offers contexts, each with various features and commands. A useful netsh context is Diag which allows the user to Ping, Connect, and Show. These commands are quite useful, the Ping command alone being more versatile than just doing at the command prompt (not in netsh). To get into the Diag context of netsh, go to a Command Prompt, type netsh, and then type Diag at the netsh> prompt. For more information about Netsh, type netsh /? at the command prompt to get a list of contexts. When within a context, type help or a command. For example, when in the Diag context of Netsh, type show to get a list of all its potential uses. Do likewise with the ping command.
Netstat - shows active connections. ALSO note the representation of PORTS below:
|Port Number||What is it?|