Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea).
total: 28,750 sq km
land: 27,400 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland.
Coastline: 362 km
Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter.
Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast.
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel.
Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluen
0-14 years: 34% (male 575,087; female 534,618)
15-64 years: 60% (male 927,791; female 1,068,922)
65 years and over: 6% (male 80,135; female 113,204) (July 1997 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.9% (1997 est.)
Birth rate: 21.96 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)
Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 68.28 years
male: 65.24 years
female: 71.55 years (1997 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1997 est.)
Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%,
other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox
20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice.
Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 72%
female: 63% (1955 est.)
Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending.
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Democratic
Party or PD [Tritan SHEHU]; Albanian Republican Party or PR [Sabri GODO];
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Skender GJINUSHI]; Democratic Alliance
Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA, chairman]; Unity for Human Rights Party or
PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; Movement for Democracy Party or LDP [ruled
by committee of Genc RULI, Alfred SERREQI, Dashimir SHEHI, Maksim KONOMI];
Kombetar [Hysen SELFO].
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
services: 23% (1995)
Agriculture - products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock
total value: $205 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, US, Greece, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
total value: $680 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Debt - external: $500 million (1994 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 600,403 (1997 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (1996)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)
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