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Geography—note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area—comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Coastline: 1,600 km

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Environment—current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water 

Population: 10,864,512 (July 1998 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,471,108; female 2,401,631)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,864,152; female 2,831,209)
65 years and over: 3% (male 137,432; female 158,980) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.84% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: 43.58 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: 16.79 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 132.44 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.86 years
male: 45.6 years
female: 50.23 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.) 

National capital: Luanda

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity government in April 1997
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly 

Economy—overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of more than 20 years of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources—gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and large oil deposits—Angola will need to implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production and higher oil prices.

GDP—real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 56%
services: 32% (1994 est.)

Agriculture—products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: US 70%, EU

total value: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing; substantial military supplies
partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt—external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei 

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 2,476,766 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: 1,246,349 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: $1.2 billion (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

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