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organized by region
Korea (North and South)
United Kingdom
Latin America (General)
Middle East/North Africa (General)
North America (General)


Cold War Hotlinks:  A page of very extensive links to anything and everything related to the Cold War.

Cold War International History Project:  An online journal since Spring 1992, this site includes scholarly articles/analysis of newly released documents and some of those documents.

CNN Cold War Series:  The on-line guide to CNN's extensive series on the Cold War with episode-by-episode breakdowns and transcripts, a discussion of Cold War memories, and much more.

Kennan Telegram:  The text of one of the most important early Cold War documents.

The Marshall Plan Collection:  This site, part of the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library, has extensive archival material on the Marshall Plan including documents, press releases, newspaper reports, private letters, and more.

George Marshall Speech (16:00): The full speech by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5, 1947 announcing the beginning of the Marshall Plan.

National Security Archives:  Includes newly declassified documents (with sections blacked out) on US relations with countries around the world.

Mount Holyoke Page:  This page is a well-organized compilation of historical and other material available on the internet, especially strong on US Foreign Policy.

Space Race:  A good exhibit put up by the National Air and Space Museum combining images and text and tracing the Cold War’s influence on the race to be first in space.

Yalta Conference Protocols:  The text of the agreement signed at Yalta.


Colonialism and Decolonization:  This aptly named page provides links to a number of sites dealing with the long-term impact of colonialism and de-colonization on a global scale.

Biological Colonialism:  This brief article entitled "Doublespeak and the New Biological Colonialism" by S. M. Mohamed Idris argues that the developed nations are resorting to a perversion of language in an attempt to give a legal basis for a new form of colonialism based on control over biological and genetic materials.

Support Indigenous Rights:  This extensive page looks at colonialism in North America as well as neo-colonialism around the world, documenting the struggle of indigenous peoples everywhere for their basic rights.

Indigenous Struggles:  A page of links to Native American groups struggling against the legacies of colonialism in both North and South America.

Survival International:  A page documenting the struggles of indigenous peoples around the world, from Indonesia to Kenya to Brazil and many other places as well.

Mahatma Gandhi:  A page dedicated to one of history's great leaders against colonial oppression.


Greenpeace Archive Page:  An obviously slanted perspective but nonetheless a good place to start for environmental activism, and particularly the activities of Greenpeace.

Exxon and the Valdez Oil Spill:   The company's perspective on the infamous Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in 1989.

Critics of the Valdez Oil Spill:  For a totally different point of view on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill visit the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Photo Gallery of this and other spills.

Shell's Environmental Impact in Nigeria: This is the Shell Oil Company's official page on the controversy over its operations in Nigeria.

Sierra Club's Page on Shell in Nigeria:  A much more critical look at the company's actions in Nigeria which calls for a boycott of Shell. More information from the Sierra Club on Shell in Nigeria can be found by using the search engine on their web site.

Project Underground--The Shell Game:  This page also gives a critical perspective on the actions of Shell Oil in Nigeria.


Feminist Theory Web Site:  An extensive site with a helpful link to “Different National and Ethnic Feminisms,” which is divided up according by regions and country.  The site also presents issues in aesthetics, cultural theory, anthropology, body studies, communication and media, education, the environment, among many others.

Gender (Roles) Matter(s):  A links page listing several sites dealing with issues of gender and gendger roles around the world from the Global Citizens for Change web site.

Distinguished Women of Past and Present:  A site dedicated to biographies of famous women. Well indexed by name and by field, the biographical entries are precise and informational but deal mostly with women born prior to the 20th century.

Celebrating Women’s History:  A site with a timeline of women’s history and biographies of famous women.

Gender and Urban Governance: Global Development Research Center page with several links dealing with the gender issues and problems that can and have resulted from failing to incorporate appropriate policies in development and in governing urban areas.


CIA Fact book:  A valuable resource with maps and extensive, detailed information on countries around the world.

U.S. State Department:  Also a valuable resource with information on regions and specific countries around the world.

Virtual Reference Desk:  A library reference for questions on historical information.

WWW-VL History Index:  This site, maintained by the University of Kansas, is an extensive web resource of historical links organized by subject.

History Channel:  This page has an interesting archive of historic speeches in English, including one by the Cuban Ambassador to the UN in response to the Bay of Pigs invasion; a famous speech by Gandhi in London; General Douglas MacArthur's announcement of Japan’s surrender at the end of W.W.II; etc.

Sound & Picture Archive:  This site has numerous famous speeches and an extensive photo archive of historical figures and events.


The Crash:  The page accompanying PBS Frontline's episode on the international financial crisis of 1997-98.  It includes a transcript and interviews with leading economists.

IMF:  The official web page of the International Monetary Fund.

The IMF--Market Reform and Economic Crisis:  A critical look at the International Monetary Fund's policies and their impact on third world countries.

World Bank Group:  This page connects to others on the World Bank’s current activities, data sources, environmental overviews for regions and countries around the world.

Pie Throwers Protest Euro:  This is the page of the Dutch group which protest policies by hitting people in the face with pies--this time the European Financial Minister is the victim at the announcement of the introduction of Europe's new currency, the Euro.

Consumer Price Index:  "If a Model-T cost $395 in 1919 what would it cost today?"  Use this handy guide, taken primarily from the two-volume Historical Statistics of the United States, enables us to convert historical prices to current dollars.”


United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:  This extensive web site has a photographic data base searched via key words or terms such as “Concentration camps,” “Crematoria,” or “Women;” on-line exhibitions featuring images of material at the museum; listings of Archival information, Library Holdings and available Photo data on the Holocaust, including a site devoted to Haftlingspersonalbogen, prisoner registration forms from Auschwitz; sites on Guidelines for Teaching about the Holocaust, a Brief History of the Holocaust, Frequently Asked Questions about the Holocaust, and much, much more.

The Simon Wiesenthal Center:  This page lists Holocaust Resources, including 36 Questions on the Holocaust; responses to Historical Revisionists; a Holocaust Glossary with definitions of over 60 terms, places and personalities of the Holocaust; a Holocaust Timeline listing events that took place between 1933-1945; Holocaust Bibliographies that provide in-depth information on specific Holocaust subjects.

Cybrary of the Holocaust:  An extensive site dedicated to the remembrance of Holocaust victims.

Anne Frank House:  This site includes images of the house and its museum holdings, as well as images and excerpts from the diary itself.

The Cambodian Genocide Project:  This well-researched site includes the Cambodian Genocide Data Base with bibliographic, photographic, geographic, and biographic information, including a CGP Biographic Database (CBIO) from many different sources such as written accounts and interviews from over 6,000 individuals.

Genocide in Rwanda:  This page documents freelance photographer Rudy Brueggemann's work in Rwanda in the aftermath of genocide in that country.


Universal Declaration of Human Rights:  This is a link to the United Nations web site which contains the full text of the 1948 declaration.  This set of ideas has become the standard against which both quality of life and human rights abuses have been judged.

Human Rights Watch:  The extensive website of one of the most well known human rights organizations in the world, it includes information on human rights abuses everywhere from Africa, Asia, and Latin America to right here in the USA.

Amnesty International UK:  This extensive site of one of the world's most famous Human Rights Organizations includes background information, press releases on the organization's recent activities, and a library where regional reports can be accessed.

The Graduate Institute of International Studies:  This site offers links to a variety of international human rights organizations, regional groups, and a on-line library of treaties and other human rights documents such as the 1945 UN Charter.


Worldwide Internet Music Resources:  An educational resource providing an extensive list of links with information about the music of the world.  The page is organized by countries and regions and their musical styles.

Anthems of the World:  This extensive site features most of the National Anthems of the world with texts (usually in the native language and English translation) and music for most of the anthems.

The East is Red:   This article, part of the PBS site on its special, The Gate of Heavenly Peace,about the Tianamen Square Massacre of 1989, discusses the historical significance of the song "The East is Red," a traditional Chinese folk tune that was given a new set of lyrics extolling Mao Zedong and the Communist regime.  Heard daily in contemporary China, the song is typically regarded by Chinese citizens as a propagandistic emblem of the Communist government.

African Music and Dance:  An extremely informative site about traditional music and dance in Africa (mostly West Africa) complete with video clips and music samplings.

Indigenous Music of Guatemala:  This site includes Real Audio files of music using the indigenous Guatemalan instrument the Marimba.

Afghan Music: This site features Real Audio files of Afghan music in a variety of languages and also includes the text of Afghan poetry.


Basic Information on the Bomb:  A summary of key information regarding the atomic bombings of Japan in August 1945.

"Second Guessing Hiroshima":  A short article questioning US President Harry S Truman's decision to bomb Japan.

Hiroshima Project:  The Hiroshima Archive is intended to serve as a research and educational guide to those who want to gain and expand their knowledge of the atomic bombings.

Trinity Atomic Web Site:  This site traces the history, technology, and consequences of nuclear weapons.

A-Bomb WWW museum:  An on-line museum of the bomb and its use against Japan, this site has an extensive discussion format on the debate over continued nuclear weapons testing.

Leo Szilard Home Page:  A web page devoted to one of the most important figures in the creation of the atomic bomb and one of the early critics of its use.  The page includes a collection of documents on the decision to use the first atomic bombs, and Szilard's attempts to prevent this--including his July 17, 1945, petition to President Truman and Einstein's letter to Roosevelt, August 2, 1939.


WWW Virtual Library: History of Science, Technology & Medicine:  A good place to start for themes related to science, technology, and medicine, with a good index (both alphabetically and by subject) that links to exhibitions, libraries, and institutions.

Space Race:  An exhibit put up by the National Air and Space Museum, it combines images and text and traces the Cold War’s influence on the race to be first in space.


Africa 2000:  This page links to a variety of materials about foreign aid, policy objectives, intervention, propaganda, current events, etc.  Good as web reference source for recent African issues.

Africa Policy Information Center:  Focuses on U.S. foreign policy in Africa and current events.  The page also provides on-line document archive, as well as links to other general African internet resources.

Africa Online:  Links to a variety of web sites organized by country and topic (health, education, business, etc.).

Stanford University South of the Sahara:   This is an annotated guide to selected internet resources divided by regions/countries and a wide array of subject categories.

University of Pennsylvania African Studies:  This is probably the most thorough site geared for academic purposes; it offers country-specific links, as well as links to African Studies programs, bibliographies, music/video/film collections, and an annotated list of African web sites.


Map:  A good map of Congo.

CongoWeb:  This is an independently maintained web site which provides information on Congo’s history, government, people, land, etc.  It purports to be in both French and English but some of the links have yet to be translated.  A work in progress but potentially the most useful site on the country.


Focus: Conflict in Zaire:  This is CNN’s website on Zaire which gives a good summary of  the 1997 overthrow of long-time dictator Mobutu Sese Seko by Laurent Kabila.

Zaire: A Country Study:  This site has the most extensive information on Zaire in terms of historical background.  However, the material only goes up until 1993 (i.e. before the Democratic republic of Congo) so there’s obviously some limitations.


Ghana Home Page:  This page provides a general profile of Ghana (climate, population, govt.).  It includes some useful information but is mainly an on-line brochure for tourists and international investors.

Dance Spirit of Ghana:  This page gives  information on how to obtain a video documentary created by Ghanaian drum master, C.K. Ladzekpo.  It also includes audio/visual clips.

Republic of Ghana:  This is the unofficial website for Ghana created by a private group in Canada.  Despite such distant origins, this site?rather than the government page?is the online spot for cyber-Ghanaians.  Replete with photos, maps, sound bites, video clips, as well as text on facts &figures, history, independence, business, etc. this site crosses the lines of patriotism, politics and self-promotion.

Biography of Kwame Nkrumah:  This is from a recently founded African publishing company with an on-line newsletter that has devoted three recent issues to a serialized biography of Nkrumah.  The biography is fairly comprehensive, covering Nkrumah’s early Roman Catholic upbringing, U.S. education, and finally his return to Ghana in the 1940s and his subsequent rise and fall from power.  Although the biographer presents a fairly glowing portrayal of Nkrumah, especially his early life, there is some hard-nosed criticism of his economic policies and financial mismanagement of the 1960s. However, it is the newsletter’s impressive photo collection of  Nkrumah and related people, places and events that accompany the text that make this site a must for anyone teaching/studying Ghana’s first president.


Kenyaweb:  This page bills itself as “Kenya’s definitive internet source” and provides good information on history, government, economy and culture.  Though aimed primarily at potential tourists, this site nevertheless gives solid background material.

Kenya Embassy:  The official page of the Washington, D.C. embassy, this page provides basic information on Kenya's economy, politics, travel, and sports.



Nigeria Web:  This is a glitzy and somewhat commercialized site but does provide extensive resources including the latest news, democracy and human rights issues, regional and cultural issues, etc.

National Archives at Enugu:  This link offers a guide to the large collection of public documents accessible at the Nigerian National Archives.

Nigerian Galleria:  This site is supported by corporate Nigeria; to historians it offers a few things missing from other sites, namely, biographies and pictures of Nigerian leaders up to 1966, and then summaries of more recent republics and military regimes.

Motherland Nigeria:  This is an individually run page created by an enterprising Nigerian woman.  Despite a lack of institutional support, this page is amazingly thorough and accurate in providing links and information on the country's geography, language, culture, music.

Shell Nigeria: This is the Shell Oil Company's official page on the controversy over its operations in Nigeria.

Project Underground--The Shell Game:  This page also gives a critical perspective on the actions of Shell Oil in Nigeria.


Genocide in Rwanda:  This page documents freelance photographer Rudy Brueggemann's work in Rwanda in the aftermath of genocide in that country.

Rwanda: 10 Years After:  This site is run by One World on-line, a humanitarian organization trying to raise awareness of problems in Rwanda.  It includes maps, short video clips, and useful background information.

Incore:  This site is posted by a British organization which specializes on conflict and resolution studies and has compliled a fairly extensive list of links for Rwanda.  The majority of sites deal with current news and humanitarian efforts.


Truth and Reconciliation Commission:  The official report of South Africa's Commission looking into crimes of the apartheid period to determine whether perpetrators should be granted amnesty.  In addition to press releases, copies of the TRC acts and general background to the Commission, this site posts transcripts and amnesty decisions for everyone who has gone before the TRC and for those continuing to testify.  (Note:  some of the transcripts are in Afrikaans without English translation).  There are plenty of pages of frank descriptions in English that tell of us spies, sabotage plots, murders, police brutality, etc.  See how a militarized state of minority rule survived for so long and how the majority resisted despite the tremendous odds and sometimes fatal consequences.

African National Congress:  This is the official page of the ANC, South Africa’s majority party led by Nelson Mandela and responsible for creating the Government for National Unity.  Their site is highly sophisticated, well-maintained and extremely useful for the historically minded web surfer (i.e. rich in archival material).  There is also a fairly extensive “ANC Picture Library.”

South Africa Internet Resources:  This page lists all relevant web sites on South Africa by category such as education, finance, politics, sports, etc.  Nearly as complete as other South African web browsers but much easier to use.

Embassy of South Africa:  This is the site created by the US South African embassy.  A glossy and attractive site, it includes business, government, news, arts and culture links, as well as more general information on South Africa (flag, anthem, climate).  A history page provides an accurate if slightly sanitized synthesis of South African history.


Missionary Cartoonist:  This is an archive of political cartoons by the Reverend Dr. Morgan Johnson created from 1963 and 1974 during Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) struggle for liberation.


Asian studies WWW Virtual Library:  A global collaborative project which provides access to scholarly documents on the Internet, as well as resources and information systems concerned with or relevant to Asian Studies.


The Current Situation:  This page offers updated information on Afghanistan and also some historical documents and photos of past ruling groups including the Taliban.

Stop Gender Abuses in Afghanistan:  This page by the Feminist Majority Foundation details some of the worst abuses against women and calls for action.

Report of Forced Haircuts:  This report describes forced haircuts given by Taliban militia members to youth in Kabul and also incidents of abuse against women.

Who are the Taliban?:  Link to CNN online news coverage of the Taliban movement.


The Cambodian Genocide Project:  This well-researched site includes the Cambodian Genocide Data Base with bibliographic, photographic, geographic, and biographic information, including a CGP Biographic Database (CBIO) from many different sources such as written accounts and interviews from over 6,000 individuals.


China WWW Virtual Library: This is also an extensive collection of links to online sites dealing with contemporary Chinese history and culture.

Fairbank Memorial Chinese History Virtual Library PRC: This page links to countless sites on pre-modern and modern China.

China Home Page:  This is the Chinese government's official homepage.

Far Eastern Economic Review:  A leading news weekly based in Hong Kong with thorough economic analysis of China and its neighbors.

South China Morning Post:  The Hong Kong daily paper in English.

Beijing Review:  Get news from the Chinese government's perspective with this official weekly journal of the People's Republic of China.

China Daily:  This is similarly the official PRC point of view through the English language version of its daily paper.

The Gate of Heavenly Peace:  This extensive site is based on the PBS Frontline documentary about the protests at Tiananmen Square and the resulting Beijing Massacre of June 4, 1989.  In addition to information about the film, the site includes articles, essays, and book excerpts containing analysis and interpretation of the 1989 protests.

Chinese Embassy in Washington:  This is the official site of the Chinese Embassy in the US.


Mahatma Gandhi:  A page dedicated to India's great leaders in the struggle against British colonial rule and for Indian independence.

Jyoti Basu:  This site is about a communist leader from West Bengal, India, one of the last communist leaders left alive in the world.  Jyoti Basu, chief minister of West Bengal, very nearly became India's prime minister in the recent elections.

The "Bandit Queen" Phoolan Devi:  This brief article is about India's infamous "Bandit Queen," Phoolan Devi, now a member India's parliament, who threatened to commit suicide in August 1997 unless cases against her were settled justly.

Links to material about Phoolan Devi:  This page links readers to a number of pages about Phoolan Devi and the controversial film chronicling her career.

Reviews of the film "Bandit Queen":  This site links to a number of reviews of the film "Bandit Queen."


SOS East Timor:  This page deals extensively with the conflict over East Timor, an island invaded and occupied by Indonesia in the 1970s.


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Vietnamese Declaration of Independence:  This is Ho Chi Minh's famous Declaration of Vietnamese Independence, which closely resembles the US Declaration of Independence, delivered in August 1945.

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Embassy:  An official site of the Vietnamese government, this page has links to documents in English and a photo galleries.

Martin Luther King's "Declaration of Independence from the War in Vietnam":  This is a speech by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in which he articulates his opposition to U.S. involvement in the war.


Links to Russian Painting:  Organized by century this site allows access to the incredible world of Russian art.

The Hermitage and the Russian Museum:  Enter the halls of one of the most important palaces in Russian history.

Faces of Russia:  The companion website to the much celebrated PBS Seris by that title.

Russian History Site at Bucknell:  One of the best resources for Russian and Soviet history.

An Historic Tour of the Moscow Kremlin:  An excellent guide through the center of Russia's history, the Kremlin in Moscow.

The History of Jews in Russia:  Deals extensively with a history of anti-Semitism endured by Jews in Russia both during the Tsars and under Soviet power.

Russian Jewish Emigrant Archive:  This page documents the thoughts and experiences of countless Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

Friends and Partners:  This page is authored jointly by citizens of the US and Russia to promote better understanding between the people of the two countries.  It has a great deal of information about the Russian Federation.

Russian Song Archive:  An extensive site with links to the texts of numerous Russian songs (mostly in Russian, it requires Cyrillic Fonts).

CZECH REPUBLIC (former Czechoslavakia)

Czech(oslavakia) Radio Prague:  A good site for Czech history that reaches back to the country’s early origins, but  is good for the period after WWII as well.  A very good source for the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Velvet revolution.


SERBIA and MONTENEGRO and former Republics

(formerly Yugoslavia)

Titoville:  This is an interesting site on Tito billed as his "personal website."

Constitution for Bosnia-Herzegovina:  Written as part of the 1995 Dayton Accords that finally ended the five-year war in Bosnia, the Constitution includes the unprecedented provision (Article VII/Paragraph 2) that the Governor of the country's Central Bank be appointed by the International Monetar Fund.

US Media Coverage of the War in Kosovo:  This page analyzes the US media's coverage of the recent conflict in Kosovo, finding fault with reporting on civilian casualties, the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, and many other issues as well.


Pie Throwers Protest Euro:  This is the page of the Dutch group which protest policies by hitting people in the face with pies--this time the European Financial Minister is the victim at the announcement of the introduction of Europe's new currency, the Euro.

UNC Center for European Studies:  An excellent place to begin looking for information on Europe.


Profile of France:  This is a general website put up by the French Foreign Ministry, with basic information about French political institutions, geography, population, science and culture, and social institutions.


History of Germany--Primary Documents:  An amazing collection of documented material for those with an interest in Germany's history.

Berlin Wall:  This short page on the Berlin Wall was put up by chemistry professor at the Free University of Berlin.

UNC Center for European Studies:  Includes, among other things, some interesting material on Tic Tac Toe, a German rap group.  There is also a good discussion of citizenship laws in Germany, the role of foreigners in modern Germany, as well as minority culture in general.


 "The Vanished Gallery":  A page that documents the crimes of "the dirty war," the repression of political dissidents by Argentina's military government in the 1970s.

Sgt. Victor Ibanez's Testimony:  In one of the most incredible testimonies stemming from investigations of the "dirty war," this participant recalls dropping prisoners from helicopters into the ocean.


Derechos Chile:  This site has amazingly detailed info (mostly in Spanish but with a substantial amount in English as well) on human rights abuses under the Pinochet regime.


Album:  A site of numerous photographs by Ann Marie and an archive of  discussion and comments.

Indigenous Music of Guatemala:  This site includes Real Audio files of music using the indigenous Guatemalan instrument the Marimba.

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing:  This page links to resources on the National Security Archives web page, including documents on US involvement in Guatemala in 1954.

Guatemala: Memoria del Silencio:   The CEH online report.

State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996:  A Quantitative Reflection:  A work by Patrick Ball, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer.

Negotiating Rights:  The Guatemalan Peace Process:  Features documentation and analysis of Guatemala's long civil war and efforts to finally bring it to an end.

Guatemala Online (quetzalnet):  Economic and travel information on Guatemala.

LANIC:  Compiled by the University of Texas, this is one of the most comprehensive sites for information on all of Latin America, including Guatemala.

Guatemala--Times of Change:  This page deals with U.S. policy in Guatemala in 1954 and after.

Sacred Sites:  This page has great images of a number of the world's most amazing pyramids and architectural achievements, including several Mayan pyramids.


The Algeria Page:  A page of information and links on Algerian history and links to other Algeria-related sites.


Iranian Constitution:  This is the text of the Iranian Constitution adopted after the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

Salam Iran:  This site links to a number of cultural and political pages about Iran and includes the text for the Iranian National Anthem post-1979.

CNN interview with Iranian President:  This page provides background information on Iranian history and a lengthy interveiw with its President, Seyed Mohammad Khatami.

Analysis of Iranian Elections:  Part of the page, this site analyzes the February 2000 parliamentary elections in Iran won by reformists in support of President Mohammad Khatami.


 Links coming soon


Webcore’s Historic Audio Archives:  This site has a good “rogue’s gallery” of audio clips of famous people in the 20th century, including “Voices of the Civil Rights’ Era,” Kennedy, McCarthy, Nixon (there is an entire collection of Nixon speeches) and many other political figures.

American Memory, Historical Collections for the National Digital Library:  This is a good site from the Library of Congress thousands of images and a very good search engine.


Chiapas: The People, The Land, The Struggle:  This site documents the struggle of the indigenous people of the Chiapas state of Mexico.


Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting:  This is the web page for one of the most prominent sources of media criticism.


Coup in Ecuador

NATO Expansion
Center for Defense Information
Report by Paul Gallis
President Clinton's Press Conference (7-97)
Report by William D. Hartung

Kosovo  Kosovo Update
Council for Europe
Peace Action Statement
"Bombs Away!" by Immanuel Wallerstein
Useless Aid
"The Clinton-Milosevich Chess Match"
"The Balkan War and US Global Power"

East Timor
Z-Net information on East Timor
East Timor Action Network
Noam Chomsky on Timor
Edward Herman on Timor
Campaign for Labor Rights

Shakeup at the IMF
Protests against the WTO

Analysis of Current Situation in Russia
Report on the War in Chechnya

Israeli Palestinian Peace Process Documents

 World History : HyperHistory Time Line

 CNN Cold War Time Line