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Geography—note: controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast

total: 102,350 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,938 sq km)
land: 102,136 sq km (Serbia 88,412 sq km; Montenegro 13,724 sq km)
water: 214 sq km (Serbia 0 sq km; Montenegro 214 sq km)

Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Kentucky (Serbia is slightly larger than Maine; Montenegro is slightly smaller than Connecticut)

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Climate: in the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Natural resources: oil, gas, coal, antimony, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, gold, pyrite, chrome

Environment—current issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube 

Population: 11,206,039 (July 1998 est.) (Montenegro—679,904; Serbia—10,526,135)

Age structure:
0-14 years: Montenegro—22% (male 76,764; female 71,647); Serbia— 20% (male 1,121,483; female 1,043,535)
15-64 years: Montenegro—67% (male 231,849; female 227,268); Serbia— 67% (male 3,539,198; female 3,487,318)
65 years and over: Montenegro—11% (male 29,837; female 42,539); Serbia— 13% (male 575,697; female 758,904) (July 1998 est.)

Population growth rate: Montenegro—0.07%; Serbia—-0.02% (1998 est.)

Birth rate: Montenegro—13.55 births/1,000 population; Serbia—12.62 births/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Death rate: Montenegro—7.40 deaths/1,000 population; Serbia—9.67 deaths/1,000 population (1998 est.)

Infant mortality rate: Montenegro—11.24 deaths/1,000 live births; Serbia—17.11 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: Montenegro—76.14 years; Serbia—73.17 years
male: Montenegro—72.67 years; Serbia—70.77 years
female: Montenegro—79.92 years; Serbia—75.76 years (1998 est.)

Total fertility rate: Montenegro—1.76 children born/woman; Serbia—1.75 children born/woman (1998 est.)

Ethnic groups: Serbs 63%, Albanians 14%, Montenegrins 6%, Hungarians 4%, other 13%

Religions: Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Literacy: NA 

National capital: Belgrade (Serbia), Podgorica (Montenegro)

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia—SFRY)

National holiday: St. Vitus Day, 28 June

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Political parties and leaders: Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party) [Slobodan MILOSEVIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC, president]; Democratic Party or DS [Zoran DJINDJIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPSCG [Milica PEJANOVIC-DJURISIC, president]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Novak KILIBARDA]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Momir BULATOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Zarko RAKCEVIE]; Liberal Alliance of Montenegro [Slavko PEROVIC]; Democratic Community of Vojvodina Hungarians or DZVM [Sandor PALL]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Reformist Democratic Party of Vojvodina or RDSV [Aleksandar POPOV]; Democratic Alliance of Vojvodina Croats or DSHV [Bela TONKOVIC]; League of Communists-Movement for Yugoslavia or SK-PJ [Dragomir DRASKOVIC]; Democratic Alliance of Kosovo or LDK [Dr. Ibrahim RUGOVA, president]; New Democratic League of Kosovo or LDRK [Hydayet HYSENI]; Parliamentary Party of Kosovo or PPK [Adern DERNACI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Dr. Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Civic Alliance of Serbia or GSS [Vesna PESIC, chairman]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [Mirjana MARKOVIC (MILOSEVIC's wife)]; New Democracy or ND [Dusan MIHAJLOVIC]; Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA] 

Economy—overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Output in Serbia and Montenegro dropped by half in 1992-93. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it had depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices have been relatively stable since 1995. Reliable statistics continue to be hard to come by, and the GDP estimate is extremely rough. The economic boom anticipated by the government after the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995 has failed to materialize. Until the government cooperates on such matters as human rights and war criminals, it will lack full support from international financial institutions.

GDP—real growth rate: 7% (1997 est.)

GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 25%
industry: 50%
services: 25% (1994 est.)

Agriculture—products: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats

total value: $2.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Russia, Italy, Germany

total value: $6.2 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
partners: Germany, Italy, Russia

Debt—external: $11.2 billion (1995 est.)

Currency: 1 Yugoslav New Dinar (YD) = 100 paras 

Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: Montenegro—187,131; Serbia— 2,731,102 (1998 est.)

Military manpower—fit for military service:
males: Montenegro—150,666 (1998 est.); Serbia—2,187,111 (1998 est.)

Military expenditures—dollar figure: 6.55 billion dinars (1998 est.); note—conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 6% (1998 est.

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